Eachway Puts

European Binary OptionsEachway Put DeltaEachway Put GammaEachway Put ThetaEachway Put Vega

Eachway puts pay out for a win and a place. Eachway puts consist of two strikes so that at expiry, if the underlying is below the lower strike, the eachway put settles at 100. Between the strikes the eachway put settles at 25, but could be any number depending on the ratio, e.g. 100:40:0. Above the upper strike the bet settles at 0.

If the asset price is exactly the same as a strike price then the settlement price is the arithmetic mean of the above and below settlement price. So in the case of settlement prices of the ratio 100:40:0 the ‘dead heat’ settlement prices would be (100 + 40)/2 = 70 and (40 + 0)/2 = 20. Alternatively, 100:25:0 ratio would have dead heat settlement prices of 62.5 and 12.5.

Eachway Put Valuation

The eachway put is calculated as:

Eachway Put    =    R1 x Binary Put(K1) + R2 x Binary Put(K2)

where K1 is the lower strike and K2 the upper strike.

R1 > R2 and R1 + R2 = 1

Eachway Puts at Expiry

Figure 1a shows the underlying between the two strikes settling at 50, while if the underlying price is below the lower strike the eachway put settles at 100. The at-the-money settlement values are now:

(100 + 50)/2 = 75 and (50 + 0)/2 = 25

Eachway Put
Figure 1a – Eachway Put Expiry Settlement 100-50-0

Figures 1b shows the eachway put with the intermediate settlement values of 25. Here at-the-money settlements are:

(100 + 25)/2 = 62.5 and (25 + 0)/2 = 12.5

Eachway Put
Figure 1b – Eachway Put Settlement at Expiry 100:25:0

Binary options structures have now gone from the binary put options three, not two, outcomes to an eachway put with five outcomes. To avoid semantics maybe these eachway puts should be referred to as ‘quinquery’ options. Yes, silly! Far  better to just acknowledge that binary options are not just ‘Over’ and ‘Under’s.

Eachway Puts over Time

Figures 2a and 2b provide the 98.50/101.00 eachway puts with ratios 100:50:0 and 100:25:0.

In both illustrations the 25-day profile shows the shallowest gradient and lowest gearing. The eachway put gamma will be constantly extremely low for this option with a long time to expiry.

Eachway Put FV w.r.t. Time to Expiry 100-50-0
Figure 2a – Eachway Put FV w.r.t. Time to Expiry 100-50-0

With Figure 2, in general the gearing is reduced around the upper strike but increased at the lower strike. As the ratio tends towards 100:0:0 the gearing at the top  strike will be zero and at the lower strike that of the binary put option.

Eachway Put
Figure 2 – Eachway Put FV w.r.t. Time to Expiry

Eachway Puts and Volatility

In this section the 100:50:0 and 100:25:0 eachway puts with 10 days to expiry are compared over the same range of volatilities.

Eachway Put FV w.r.t. Volatility 100.50.0
Figure 3a – Eachway Put FV w.r.t. Volatility 100.50.0

The midpoint between the strikes is at (98.50 + 101.00)/2 = 99.75. In Figure 3a with ratio 100:50:0 the profiles pivot around the strike midpoint of 99.75. Here we have the situation where a volatility increase or decrease has no discernible effect on the eachway put value.

Figure 3b paints a different picture where, at 99.50, increases in volatility increase the value of the eachway put. At 99.50 this eachway put has a positive eachway put vega. In this instant an increase in the volatility increases the probability of both the payoff being both 100 or 0. The incremental increase in ‘vol’ increases the incremental expected return on the upside. This leads to all the profiles intersecting each other at a ‘breakeven’ point closer to the lower strike.

Eachway Put
Figure 3b – Eachway Put FV w.r.t. Volatility 100:25:0

Summary

Eachway calls and puts are as likely to be as popular as conventional ratio call and put spreads. 1×2, 1×3, 2×3 spreads are not uncommon strategies conventional options market-makers answer request for quotes for. A buyer of those strategies leaves themselves with an unlimited  loss profile. Eachway calls and puts always have a capped loss  profile.

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